Effect of multi-epitope derived from HIV-1 on REM sleep deprivation-induced spatial memory impairment with respect to the level of immune factors in mice
Objectives: Sleep deprivation (SD) has a negative impact on cognitive functions including learning and memory. Many studies have shown that rapid-eye-movement (REM) SD also disrupts memory performance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of multi-epitope Gag-Pol-Env-Tat derived from Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) on REM SD-induced spatial memory impairment with respect to the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a), and lymphocyte proliferation in NMRI mice. We used multi-epitope Gag-Pol-Env-Tat derived from HIV-1 because Gag-Pol-Env-Tat immunogen sequence is one of the most sensitive immunogen sequences of HIV-1 that can significantly augment cellular and humoral immune systems, leading to the improvement of cognitive functions.
Materials and methods: Morris water maze apparatus was used to assess spatial memory, and multi-platform apparatus was used to induce RSD for 24 hr. Multi-epitope derived from HIV-1 was subcutaneously injected at the dose of 20 µgr/ml, once and fourteen days before RSD.
Results: RSD impaired spatial memory and injection of multi-epitope derived from HIV-1 reversed this effect. RSD decreased IL-4, IgG1, and IgG2a levels, while multi-epitope derived from HIV-1 reversed these effects. Multi-epitope derived from HIV-1 also increased lymphocyte proliferation and decreased IL-17 levels in both control and RSD mice.
Conclusion: Multi-epitope derived from HIV-1 may improve memory performance via induction of anti-inflammatory immune response.
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